|Name according to
|Name according to
The Archaic period includes the Early Dynastic Period (Pre-Dynastic, sometimes called Dynasty 0), when Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt were ruled as separate kingdoms, and the First and Second Dynasties which saw their unification.
Lower Egypt, known as the Black Land, consisted of the northern Nile and the Nile Delta. (The Nile flows Northward.) The following list may not be complete:
Upper Egypt, known as the Red Land, consisted of the southern Nile and the adjacent desert. The following list may not be complete (there are many more of uncertain existence):
|Serket I||Oldest tomb at Umm el-Qa'ab |
- had scorpion insignia
|c. 3200 BC?|
|Iry-Hor||- existence uncertain||c.3150 BC?|
|Serket II||Also known as "Scorpion of Egypt" or "King Scorpion"; possibly the same person as Narmer.||c.3100 BC|
|Narmer||Considered by some to be the king who united Upper and Lower Egypt||c.3100 BC|
The system of "Dynasties" is based on the groupings provided by Manetho in his book "Aegyptaica" (Egyptian history) written about 300 BC. The system generally, but not exclusively, follows bloodlines but does not appear to have been in use in the earliest times in Egypt. The First Dynasty ruled from c.3050 BC to 2890 BC at Abydos (Thnis).
|Generally considered to have been the unifier of Upper and Lower Egypt. In earlier lists also known as Min and Meni||c.3050 BC|
|Merneith||Regent for Djet and Den||-|
|Djet (Wadj)||-||23 years|
|Den||-||14 to 20 years|
|Anedjib (Adjib)||-||26 years|
|Semerkhet||-||9 to 18 years|
The Second Dynasty ruled from 2890 to 2686 BC at Abydos.
|Nynetjer (Ninetjer)||-||23 years|
May have commissioned the
Gisr el Mudir at Saqqara - A large enclosure of roughly dressed stone, precursor to the pyramids.
His funerary enclosure was at Abydos (Shunet el-Zebib), 14 boats have been found nearby but may be older. Also built a funerary enclosure at Hierakonpolis.
The Old Kingdom is the period in the third millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilizational complexity and achievement (the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods which mark the high points of civilization in the Nile Valley), spanning the period when Egypt was ruled by the Third Dynasty through the Sixth Dynasty (2630 - 2151 BC). Many Egyptologists also include the Memphite Seventh and Eighth Dynasties in the Old Kingdom as a continuation of the administration centralized at Memphis. The Old Kingdom was followed by a period of disunity and relative cultural decline referred to by Egyptologists as the First Intermediate Period -- or, as the Egyptians called it, the "first illness."
The royal capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom was located at Memphis (slightly south and west of modern Cairo), where Djoser established his court. The Old Kingdom is perhaps best known for the large number of pyramids which were constructed at this time. The Old Kingdom is frequently referred to as "the Age of the Pyramids".
The Third Dynasty ruled from 2686 to 2613 BC.
|Sanakhte||First known cartouche||2686-2668|
|Nebka||in Turin list, now questionable.||??|
|Djoser (Zoser or Djeser)|
(Netjerikhet, Netjerykhet or Netcheriche)
|Possibly son or step-son of Khasekhemwy.|
Commissioned the Step Pyramid at Saqqara designed by Imhotep, considered the first pyramid. Recent evidence suggests that he followed Khasekhemwy.
|Unfinished pyramid or mastaba at Saqqara||2649-2643|
|Omitted on some lists||?|
|Khaba||Probable owner of step pyramid at Zawyet el-Aryan.||2643-2637|
|Huni||Built at least 8 step pyramids, not used as tombs, each about 60 X 60 feet (18 meters) at various locations in upper and lower Egypt.|
Possibly he began the Pyramid at Meidum.
Probable builder of a small mud brick Pyramid at Abu Roasch (Rawash or Ruash).
The Fourth Dynasty ruled from 2613 to 2498 BC and included the Pharaohs who had the famous Giza Pyramids built: Khufu (Cheops), Khafre (Chephren) and Menkaura (Mycerinus).
(Snefru or Snofru)
|Commissioned three large pyramids,|
The now broken pyramid at Meidum,
and the Bent and Red Pyramids at Dahshur.
Two small pyramids may also be from his reign.
|Khufu (Chufu)||Greek form: Cheops|
Commissioned the "Great Pyramid" at Giza.
(Djedfra, Djedefre, Radjedef or Redjedef)
|pyramid at Abu Roasch (Rawash or Ruash)||2566-2558|
|Khafra (Cha-ef-re, Khafre or Kaphere)||Greek form: Chephren, Cephrenes, Kephren or Chefren|
Commissioned the second largest Pyramid at Giza
|-||here some authorities insert Bikheris, following Manetho|
May have an unfinished pyramid at Zawyet el-Aryan.
|Menkaure (Menkaura)||Greek form: Mycerinus or Mykerinos|
Commissioned the third Giza Pyramid
|Shepseskaf (Shepseskare)||Unfinished mastaba at Saqqara||2503-2498|
|-||here some authorities insert Thampthis, following Manetho||-|
The Fifth Dynasty ruled from 2498 to 2345 BC. All the Fifth Dynasty Pharaohs built pyramids, although on a smaller scale than those of the Fourth Dynasty.
|Userkaf||Pyramid at Saqqara||2498-2491|
|Sahure||Pyramid at Abusir||2487-2477|
|Pyramid at Abusir||2477-2467|
|Queen Khentkawes (wife of Neferirkare Kakai)||May have ruled for a time on her own.|
Pyramid at Abusir
|Probably began a pyramid at Abusir.||2467-2460|
|Unfinished pyramid at Abusir.||2460-2453|
(Niuserre or Niuserra)
|Pyramid at Abusir||2453-2422|
|Menkauhor Kaiu||Built a pyramid at Saqqara, reported by Lepsius in 1842, then lost. Re-discovered (probably) in 2008.||2422-2414|
|Pyramid at Saqqara||2414-2375|
(Unis, Oenas, Ounas or Wenis)
|Pyramid at Saqqara
Tomb inscribed with "Pyramid Texts"
- First known "Book of the Dead".
The Sixth Dynasty ruled from 2345 to 2181 BC.
|Teti||Pyramid at Saqqara||2345-2333|
|Pepi I Meryre Radjedef |
|Pyramid at Saqqara||2332-2283|
|Merenre Nemtyemsaf I|
|Pyramid at Saqqara||2283-2278|
|Pepi II Neferkare |
|Perhaps the longest reign of any historic king.
Pyramid at Saqqara
|Merenre Nemtyemsaf II||Uncertain pharaoh.||2184|
|Nitiqret||A female ruler.||2184-2181|
The First Intermediate Period
The Old Kingdom rapidly collapsed after the death of Pepi II. He had reigned for 94 years, longer than any monarch in history, and died aged 100. The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency because of his advanced age.
The Union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart and regional leaders had to cope with the resulting famine.
Around 2160 BC, a new line of Pharaohs tried to reunite Lower Egypt from their capital in Herakleopolis Magna. In the meantime, however, a rival line based at Thebes, was reuniting Upper Egypt and a clash between the two rival dynasties was inevitable.
Around 2055 BC, a descendant of the Pharaoh Intef III defeated the Herakleopolitan pharaohs, reunited the Two Lands, founded the Eleventh Dynasty and ruled as Mentuhotep II, the first pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom.
The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties ruled from 2181 to 2160 BC. (This table is based on the Abydos Table from the Temple of Seti I, taken from www.narmer.pl/main/abydos_en.html)
|-||some authorities place here Merenhor|
|Iby (Ibi or Ity)||Qakara|
Pyramid at Saqqara
The Ninth Dynasty ruled from 2160 to 2130 BC.
|Meryibre Khety (Achthoes I)||-||2160- ?|
|Meribre Khety II||-||?|
|Nebkaure (Acthoes II)||-||?|
|Wakhare Khety I||-||?|
|Merykare||Possible owner of a pyramid at Saqqara||?|
|Wankhare Khety II||-||?|
|Wankhare Khety III||-||?|
|Khety II's daughter||-||?|
|Merikare's daughter||-||? -2130|
The Tenth Dynasty was a local group that held sway over Upper Egypt that ruled from 2130 to 2040 BC.
|Wankare (Acthoes III)||-||?|
The Eleventh Dynasty was a local group with roots in Lower Egypt that ruled from 2134 to 1991 BC.
|Nebhetepre Mentuhotep I
|Gained control of all Egypt 2040, Middle Kingdom begins.||2060-2010|
|Sankhkare Mentuhotep II
|Nebtawyre Mentuhotep III
The Middle Kingdom
In addition to the Twelfth Dynasty, some scholars include the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties in the Middle Kingdom. The Middle Kingdom was a time of expansion of foreign trade. Wealth from this trade eventually led to an invasion by the Hyksos.
The Twelfth Dynasty ruled from 1991 to 1802 BC, and was considered by later Egyptians as their greatest age.
|-Original Pharaoh to open trade outside Egypt.
Pyramid at Lisht
(Sesostris, Senwosret or Senwosri I)
|Pyramid at Lisht||1971-1926|
|"White" pyramid at Dahshur||1929-1895|
|Senusret II (Sesostris or Senwosret II)||Limestone and mud-brick pyramid at Illahun (el-Lahun||1897-1878|
|Senusret III (Sesostris or Senwosret III)||Pyramid at Dahshur
with a large mortuary temple.
Six boats were discovered in 1893.
|"Black" pyramid at Dahshur.
Tomb is a pyramid at Hawara.
The extensive mortuary temple of this pyramid may be the "Egyptian Labyrinth" of classical writers. Mostly destroyed.
|-Had a coregency lasting at least 1 year, based on an Inscription at Konosso||1815-1807|
|A rare female ruler.||1807-1803|
The Second Intermediate Period is a period of disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom.
The Thirteenth Dynasty was much weaker than the Twelfth Dynasty, and was unable to hold onto the land of Egypt. The provincial ruling family in Xois, located in the marshes of the western Delta, broke away from the central authority to form the Fourteenth Dynasty.
The Hyksos made their first appearance during the reign of Sobekhotep IV, and around 1720 BC took control of the town of Avaris (the modern Tell ed-Dab'a/Khata'na). The Eastern Hyksos, led by Salitis, the founder of the Fifteenth Dynasty, overran Egypt during the reign of Dudimose I (little wonder, that.). They are counted as Pharaohs of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Dynasties.
Around the time Memphis fell to the Hyksos, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes declared its independence and set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty. The several dynastys of the second intermediate period sometimes ruled in different areas at the same time.
The Thirteenth Dynasty (following the Turin King List) ruled from 1803 to around 1649 BC and lasted 153 or 154 Yrs according to Manetho. About 70 Pharaohs ruled during this period.
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep or Khutawyre
|- Founded the 13th Dynasty. His reign is attested by several Nile Records and Papyri||1803-1799 4 Years|
|Sekhemkare||- Amenemhat V Senebef, brother of Sekhemre Khutawy.||3 years|
|Renseneb||-4 Months||c. 1775|
|Sedjefakare||-A well known king attested on numerous stele and other documents||-c.5 to 7 Yrs|
|Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep||-||c. 1767|
|Khendjer||-Minimum 4 Yrs
Pyramid at Saqqara
|Sobekhotep III||-4 Years & 2 Months||c. 1755|
Unfinished pyramid at Dahshur.
|Neferhotep I||-11 Years||1751-1740|
|Sobekhotep IV||-10 or 11 Yrs||1740-1730|
|Sobekhotep V||-||c. 1730|
|Wahibre Ibiau||-10 Yrs & 8 Months||c. 1725-1714|
|Merneferre Ai||-23 Yrs & 8 Months||c. 1714-1691|
|Merhetepre Ini||-2 Yrs & 2 Months||?|
the position of the following kings is uncertain
|Dudimose I||-||c. 1654|
The Fourteenth Dynasty was a local group from the eastern Delta, based at Xois (Avaris), that ruled from around 1705 to around 1690 BC.
The Turin King List provides an additional 25 names, some fragmentary, and no dates. None are attested to elsewhere, and all are of very dubious provenance.
The Fifteenth Dynasty arose from among the Hyskos people: desert Bedouins who emerged out of the Fertile Crescent (modern Iraq) to establish a short-lived governance over the northern Nile region, and ruled from 1674 to 1535 BC.
|Sheshi||Ruled either 1 or 3 years||1674- ?|
|Apepi I||-||40 Years or more|
The Sixteenth Dynasty was a local group based on the north coast of the Sinai (Pelusium) and ruled from 1663 to around 1555 BC:
|-||name of the first king is lost here in the Turin King List, and cannot be recovered||-|
|Djehuty (Sekhemresementawy)||-||3 years|
|Sobekhotep VIII (Sekhemresewosertawy)||-||16 years|
|Neferhotep III (Sekhemresankhtawy)||-||1 year|
|Mentuhotepi (Sankhenra)||-||1 year|
|Nebiryraw I (Sewadjenra)||-||26 years|
|Nebiryraw II||-||3 months?|
|- (Semenra)||-||1 year?|
|Bebiankh (Sewoserenra)||-||12 years|
|- (Sekhemreshedwaset)||-||3 months?|
|-||names of five kings are lost here in the Turin King List, and cannot be recovered||-|
Some sources include as many as six more names - Semqen, Khauserre, Seket, Ahetepre, Amu, and Nebkhepeshre (Apepi III) - who are not attested elsewhere. This group seems to have disappeared entirely by 1555 BC.
The Seventeenth Dynasty in Upper (Southern) Egypt was centered in Thebes and ruled from 1650 to 1550 BC:
|Rahotep Sekhemrewahkhaw||-||1650- ?|
|Intef V the Elder||-||3 years|
|Antef VI Sekhemrewepmaat||-||?|
|Antef VII Nubkheperre||-||?|
|Intef VIII Sekhemreherhermaat||-||-|
|Sobekemsaf II Sekhemrewadjkhaw||-||-|
|Mentuhotep VI||-||1 year|
|Nebiryerawet I||-||6 years|
|Intef VII||-||3 or more years|
|Tao I the Elder||-||c.1633?|
|Tao II the Brave
|Probably killed in battle with the Hyksos||c. 1554|