The Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt
King List and Timeline
Part 1


For pharaohs of the New Kingdom,
1550 BC and later see:
Pharaoh List Page 2




Egyptian Creation.
The Sun is shown in the Underworld twice,
and on the horizon.
Papyrus of Khensumose.



The Neters (Neteru) God-kings:

The Egyptians began their chronology with an ancient high culture they called "Zep Tepi", that existed about 35,000 BC and was ruled by ten gods. Then came six dynasties of lesser gods and nine dynasties of demigods who ruled Egypt for tens of thousands of years.

Perhaps these gods were rulers, or eras, of a forgotten civilization. The later rulers could be from an unknown early Egyptian culture or perhaps the early priesthood at Heliopolis.

First God-Kings of Egypt, about 38,000 BC:
Name according to
the Turin Papyrus
Name according to
Manetho
PtahHephaestus
RaHelios
Su (Shu) Agathodaemon
Geb (Seb)Cronos
OsirisOsiris
Set (Seth)Typhon
Horus.
Thoth.
Maat (Ma).
HorusHorus


The Shemsu Hor - the Companions of Horus - Humans, now, then ruled, followed by the rule of spirits and two groups of presumed mythical kings (heroes), whose rule ended as the known pre-dynastic culture began.

Conventional archaeology ignores all this. They have found simple herders and vilagers inhabited the valley of the Nile beginning about 5500 BC in distinctive phases called the Badarian, Amratian (Naqada I), and Gerzean (Naqada II) periods. The Nile delta, with its' deep layer of silt, has many stories yet to tell.

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It should be noted that dates are approximate and that there is disagreement among experts about much of this material. Spelling of Egyptian names is not standardized, some alternative versions are given.

Archaic period

The Archaic period includes the Early Dynastic Period (Pre-Dynastic, or Dynasty 0), and the First and Second Dynasties. This period marks a consolidation of power generally into two kingdoms, Lower (North) Egypt and Upper (South) Egypt. These were first ruled as separate kingdoms, and maintained their identity to some extent throughout Egyptian history. In 3050 BC the two kingdoms were united into a single nation.

Early dynastic: Lower Egypt

Lower (Northern) Egypt, known as the Black Land, consisted of Memphis (near modern Cairo) and the Nile Delta. (The Nile flows northward.) The following list is all uncertain.

Name Comments Dates
Seka -  ?
Khayu -  ?
Tiu (Tau?) -  ?
Thesh -  ?
Neheb -  ?
Hsekiu -  ?
Wazner (Uatchnar?) c3100 BC?
Mekha (Mekh) -  ?
Double Falcon -  ?

Early dynastic: Upper Egypt

Upper (Sothern) Egypt, known as the Red Land, consisted of the southern Nile, generally to the first cataract at Philae. The cataract is a rough, fast moving section of the Nile that was as far south as boats could go without portage around the rapids.
Many more rulers are of uncertain existence:

Name Comments Dates
Serket I (Scorpion I) Oldest tomb at Umm el-Qa'ab
- had scorpion insignia
c. 3200 BC?
Crocodile uncertain
Iry-Hor c.3150 BC?
Ka-
Serket II (Scorpion II) Also known as "Scorpion of Egypt" or "King Scorpion"; possibly the same person as Narmer.
NarmerConsidered by some to be the king who united Upper and Lower Egyptc.3100 BC

First Dynasty

The system of "Dynasties" is based on the groupings provided by Manetho in his book "Aegyptaica" (Egyptian history) written about 300 BC. The system generally, but not exclusively, follows bloodlines. This system of grouping kings does not appear to have been in use in early Egypt. Dates in Egypt were computed from the (ritual) beginning of each Pharaoh's rule. Often clay wine stoppers, which record the year of vintage, provide the best record of how long a king ruled. The First Dynasty reigned from c.3050 BC to 2890 BC, their capital was at Abydos (Thnis).

Name Comments Dates
Menes (Mena)
Hor-Aha?
May be the same as Narmer. Generally considered to have been the unifier of Upper and Lower Egypt. In early lists also known as Min and Meni. Manetho says he was "snatched and killed by a hippopotamus". c.3050 BC
Djer - 2 years
Merneith Regent for Djet and Den -
Djet (Wadj) - 23 years
Den - 14 to 20 years
Anedjib (Adjib) - 26 years
Semerkhet - 9 to 18 years
Qa'a - 2916?-2890 BC
Sneferka uncertain
Horus Bird uncertain

Second Dynasty

The Second Dynasty ruled from 2890 to 2686 BC at Abydos.

NameCommentsDates
Hotepsekhemwy (Hetepsekhemwy)-2890 BC-?
Raneb (Nebra)-39 years
Nynetjer (Ninetjer)-23 years
Ba -
Nubnefer -
Horus Sa -
Wneg (Weneg-Nebty)-8 years
Wadjenes -
Senedj-20 years
Seth-Peribsen-17 years
Sekhemib-Perenmatt -
Neferkara I -
Neferkasokar -
Hudjefa I -
Khasekhem
(later) Khasekhemwy
Rhasekhemui?
May have commissioned the
Gisr el Mudir at Saqqara - A large enclosure of roughly dressed stone, precursor to the pyramids.
His funerary enclosure was at Abydos (Shunet el-Zebib). Also built a funerary monument at Hierakonpolis.
?-2686 BC

Old Kingdom

The Old Kingdom is the Third Dynasty through the Sixth, (2630 - 2151 BC), when Egypt attained its first peak of civilization (the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods which mark the high points of art and architecture in the Nile Valley).

The royal capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom was at Memphis (slightly south and west of modern Cairo), where Djoser established his court. The Old Kingdom is best known for the pyramids which were constructed at this time. The Old Kingdom was a time of art and engineering unmatched in history.

Third Dynasty

The Third Dynasty ruled from 2686 to 2613 BC.

NameCommentsDates
SanakhteFirst known cartouche2686-2668 BC
Nebkain Turin list, now questionable.??
Djoser (Zoser or Djeser)
(Netjerikhet, Netjerykhet or Netcheriche)
Possibly son or step-son of Khasekhemwy, recent evidence suggests that he followed his father.
Commissioned the Step Pyramid at Saqqara designed by Imhotep, considered the first pyramid.
2668-2649 BC
Sekhemkhet
(Djeserteti, Djosertety, Djoserty, Tyreis, Djoser Tati)
Unfinished step pyramid at Saqqara.2649-2643 BC
Zanakht
(Nebka)
Omitted on some lists?
KhabaProbable owner of step pyramid at Zawyet el-Aryan.2643-2637 BC
Qahedjet uncertain
HuniBuilt at least 8 step pyramids, not used as tombs, each about 60 X 60 feet (18 meters) at various locations in upper and lower Egypt.
Possibly he began the Pyramid at Meidum.
Probable builder of a small mud brick Pyramid at Abu Roasch (Rawash or Ruash).
2637-2613 BC

Fourth Dynasty

The Fourth Dynasty ruled from 2613 to 2498 BC and included the Pharaohs who built the famous Giza Pyramids: Khufu (Cheops), Khafre (Chephren) and Menkaura (Mycerinus). The people of Egypt in the fourth dynasty cut, moved, raised, placed and squared twenty million tons of stone to build their pyramids and associated temples, plazas and causeways. Today we would need a half million full size diesel trucks to move all that stone. Lined up, those trucks would reach half-way around the world. And they did all this without iron.

NameCommentsDates
Sneferu
(Snefru or Snofru)
Commissioned three large pyramids,
The now broken pyramid at Meidum,
and the Bent and Red Pyramids at Dahshur.
Two small pyramids may also be from his reign.
2613-2589 BC
Khufu (Chufu)
originally Khnum-Khufu
(Suphis, Saurid)
Greek form: Cheops
Commissioned the "Great Pyramid" at Giza.
2589-2566 BC
Manetho says 63 years, most sources say he ruled two decades, maybe a little longer.
Djedefra
(Djedfra, Djedefre, Radjedef, Ratoises or Redjedef)
Pyramid at Abu Roasch (Rawash or Ruash), now mostly destroyed.2566-2558 BC
Khafra (Cha-ef-re, Khafre or Kaphere) Greek form: Chephren, Cephrenes, Kephren or Chefren
Commissioned the second largest Pyramid at Giza
2558-2532 BC
Bikheris (Baka, Bakare or Biuris)
May or may not be Bauefra.
Probable, listed by Manetho
May have begun building a pyramid at Zawyet el-Aryan
(position uncertain)
Menkaure (Menkaura)Greek form: Mycerinus or Mykerinos
Commissioned the third Giza Pyramid. This was the last giant solid stone pyramid built in ancient Egypt. Later pyramids are stone frameworks filled with debris.
2532-2503 BC
Shepseskaf (Shepseskare, Sisires)Mastaba at Saqqara2503-2498 BC
Thampthis (Djedefptah, Thamphthis)Questionable, listed by Manetho-

Fifth Dynasty

The Fifth Dynasty ruled from 2498 to 2345 BC. All the Fifth Dynasty Pharaohs built pyramids, although on a much smaller scale than those of the Fourth Dynasty.

NameCommentsDates
UserkafPyramid at Saqqara2498-2491 BC
SahurePyramid at Abusir2487-2477 BC
Neferirkare Kakai
(Neferirkara)
Pyramid at Abusir2477-2467 BC
Queen Khentkawes (wife of Neferirkare Kakai)May have ruled for a time on her own.
Pyramid at Abusir
??
Shepseskare Isi
(Shepseskara)
Probably began a pyramid at Abusir.2467-2460 BC
Neferefre
(Raneferef)
Unfinished pyramid at Abusir.2460-2453 BC
Nyuserre Ini
(Niuserre or Niuserra)
Pyramid at Abusir2453-2422 BC
Menkauhor KaiuBuilt a pyramid at Saqqara, reported by Lepsius in 1842, then lost. Re-discovered (probably) in 2008.2422-2414 BC
Djedkare Isesi
(Djedkara Izezi)
Pyramid at Saqqara2414-2375 BC
Unas
(Unis, Oenas, Ounas or Wenis)
Pyramid at Saqqara
Tomb inscribed with "Pyramid Texts"
- First known "Book of the Dead".
2375-2345 BC

Sixth Dynasty

The Sixth Dynasty ruled from 2345 to 2181 BC.

NameCommentsDates
TetiPyramid at Saqqara2345-2333 BC
Userkare-2333-2332
Pepi I Meryre Radjedef
(Pepy I)
Pyramid at Saqqara 2332-2283 BC
Merenre Nemtyemsaf I
(Merenra)
Pyramid at Saqqara2283-2278 BC
Pepi II Neferkare
(Pepy II)
Perhaps the longest reign of any historic king anywhere.
Pyramid at Saqqara
2278-2184 BC
Merenre Nemtyemsaf IIUncertain pharaoh.2184 BC
NitiqretA female ruler.2184-2181 BC

First intermediate period

The Old Kingdom was followed by a period of economic and cultural decline referred to by Egyptologists as the First Intermediate Period -- or, as the Egyptians called it, the "first illness."

Egyptian central government rapidly collapsed after the death of Pepi II. He had reigned for 94 years, longer than any monarch in history, and died aged 100. The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency.

The Union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart and regional leaders had to cope with famine.

Around 2160 BC, a new line of Pharaohs tried to reunite Lower (North) Egypt from their capital in Herakleopolis Magna. In the meantime, however, a rival line based at Thebes, was reuniting Upper Egypt and a clash between the two rival dynasties was inevitable.

Seventh and Eighth Dynasties (combined)

Pharaohs of the Seventh and Eighth Dynasties had short reigns between 2181 to 2160 BC. (This table is based on the King List in the Temple of Seti I, in Abydos)

Name Notes
Neferkara I-
Neferkara (Nebi)-
Djedkara Shemai-
Neferkara Khendu-
some authorities place here Merenhor
Neferkamin (Seneferka)-
Nikara-
Neferkara Tereru-
Neferkahor-
Neferkara Pepyseneb-
Neferkamin Anu -
Qakara (Iby, Ibi or Ity)Pyramid at Saqqara
Neferkara II-
Neferkawhor (Khuwihap) -
Neferirkara-

Ninth Dynasty

The Ninth Dynasty ruled from 2160 to 2130 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Meryibre Khety (Achthoes I) - 2160 BC - ?
Meribre Khety II -  ?
Neferkare III -  ?
Nebkaure (Acthoes II) -  ?
Setut -  ?
Wakhare Khety I -  ?
Merykare Possible owner of a pyramid at Saqqara  ?
Wankhare Khety II -  ?
Menethoupe I -  ?
Wankhare Khety III -  ?
Khety II -  ?
Khety II's daughter -  ?
Merikare's daughter -  ? -2130 BC

Tenth Dynasty

The Tenth Dynasty was a local group that held sway over Upper Egypt that ruled from 2130 to 2040 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Meryhathor - 2130 BC - ?
Neferkare IV -  ?
Wankare (Acthoes III) -  ?
Merykare -  ?
- -  ? -2040

Around 2055 BC, a descendant of the Pharaoh Intef III defeated the Herakleopolitan pharaohs, reunited the Two Lands, founded the Eleventh Dynasty and ruled as Mentuhotep II, the first pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom.

Eleventh Dynasty

The Eleventh Dynasty was a local group with roots in Lower Egypt that ruled from 2134 to 1991 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Intef I
(Inyotef Sehertawy)
- 2134-2117 BC
Intef II
(Inyotef Wahankh)
- 2117-2069 BC
Intef III
(Inyotef Naktnebtepnufer)
- 2069-2060 BC
Nebhetepre Mentuhotep I
(Menthotp)
Gained control of all Egypt in 2040 BC, Middle Kingdom begins. 2060-2010 BC
Sankhkare Mentuhotep II
(Menthotp)
Built first temple at Deir el-Bahari 2010-1998 BC
Nebtawyre Mentuhotep III
(Menthotp)
- 1997-1991 BC

Middle Kingdom

The Middle Kingdom
In addition to the Twelfth Dynasty, some scholars include the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties in the Middle Kingdom. The Middle Kingdom was a time of expansion of foreign trade. Wealth from this trade eventually led to an invasion by the Hyksos.

Twelfth Dynasty

The Twelfth Dynasty ruled from 1991 to 1802 BC, and was considered by later Egyptians as their greatest age.

Name Comments Dates
Amenemhat I
(Amenemhet I)
-Original Pharaoh to open trade outside Egypt.
Pyramid at Lisht
1991-1962 BC
Senusret I
(Sesostris, Senwosret or Senwosri I)
Pyramid at Lisht
Herodotus says he invaded Europe and colonized Colchia in the western Caucasus, modern Georgia.
Credited with the first Obelisk, at Heliopolis.
1971-1926 BC
Amenemhat II
(Amenemhet II)
"White" pyramid at Dahshur 1929-1895 BC
Senusret II (Sesostris or Senwosret II) Limestone and mud-brick pyramid at Illahun (el-Lahun) 1897-1878 BC
Senusret III (Sesostris or Senwosret III) Pyramid at Dahshur
with a large mortuary temple.
Six boats were discovered in 1893.
1878-1860 BC
Amenemhat III
(Amenemhet III)
"Black" pyramid at Dahshur.
Tomb is a pyramid at Hawara.
The extensive mortuary temple of this pyramid may be the "Egyptian Labyrinth" of classical writers. Mostly destroyed.
1860-1815 BC
Amenemhat IV
(Amenemhet IV)
-Had a coregency lasting at least 1 year, based on an Inscription at Konosso 1815-1807 BC
Queen Sobekneferu
(Nefrusobk Sebekkare)
- 1807-1803 BC

Second intermediate period

The Second Intermediate Period is a period of disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom.

The Thirteenth Dynasty was much weaker than the Twelfth Dynasty, and was unable to hold onto the land of Egypt. The provincial ruling family in Xois, located in the marshes of the western Delta, broke away from the central authority to form the Fourteenth Dynasty.

The Hyksos made their first appearance during the reign of Sobekhotep IV, and around 1720 BC took control of the town of Avaris (the modern Tell ed-Dab'a/Khata'na). The Eastern Hyksos, led by Salitis, the founder of the Fifteenth Dynasty, overran Egypt during the reign of Dudimose I (little wonder, that.). They are counted as Pharaohs of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Dynasties.

Around the time Memphis fell to the Hyksos, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes declared its independence and set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty. The several dynasties of the second intermediate period sometimes ruled in different areas at the same time.

Thirteenth Dynasty

The Thirteenth Dynasty (following the Turin King List) ruled from 1803 to around 1649 BC and lasted 153 or 154 Yrs according to Manetho. About 70 Pharaohs ruled during this period.

Name Comments Dates
Wegaf
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep or Khutawyre
- Founded the 13th Dynasty. His reign is attested by several Nile Records and Papyri 1803-1799 BC 4 Years
Sekhemkare - Amenemhat V Senebef, brother of Sekhemre Khutawy. 3 years
Amenemhat - 1795-1792 BC
Sehetepre -  ? -1790 BC
Iufni -  ?
Seankhibre -  ?
Semenkare -  ?
Sehetepre -  ?
Sewadjkare -  ?
Nedjemibre -7 Months  ?
Sobekhotep I -  ?
Renseneb -4 Months c. 1775
Awybre Hor I
(Awibre)
Tomb found partly intact in Dashur. c. 1775
Sedjefakare -A well known king attested on numerous stele and other documents -c.5 to 7 Yrs
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep - c. 1767 BC
Khendjer -Minimum 4 Yrs
Pyramid at Saqqara
c. 1765 BC
Imyremeshaw -  ?
Antef V -  ?
Kng Seth -  ?
Sobekhotep III -4 Years & 2 Months c. 1755
Ameny-Qemau
(Amenyqemau)
position uncertain
Unfinished pyramid at Dahshur.
c.1750 BC
Neferhotep I -11 Years 1751-1740 BC
Sobekhotep IV -10 or 11 Yrs 1740-1730 BC
Sobekhotep V - c. 1730 BC
Wahibre Ibiau -10 Yrs & 8 Months c. 1725-1714 BC
Merneferre Ai -23 Yrs & 8 Months c. 1714-1691 BC
Merhetepre Ini -2 Yrs & 2 Months  ?
Seankhenre Sewadtjew -  ?
Mersekhemre Ined -  ?
Sewadjkare Hori -  ?

the position of the following kings is uncertain

Name Comments Dates
Dudimose I - c. 1654 BC
Dudimose II -  ?
Senebmiu -  ?
Mentuhotep V -  ?
Senaayeb -  ?

Fourteenth Dynasty

The Fourteenth Dynasty was a local group from the eastern Delta, based at Xois (Avaris), that ruled from around 1705 to around 1690 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Nehesy - c. 1705 BC
Khakherewre ? -  ?
Nebefawre - c. 1704 BC
Sehebre ? -  ?
Merdjefare - c. 1699 BC
Sewadjkare ? -  ?
Nebdjefare - c. 1694 BC
Webenre ? -  ?
 ? -  ?
-djefare ? -  ?
-webenre - c. 1690 BC

The Turin King List provides an additional 25 names, some fragmentary, and no dates. None are attested to elsewhere, and all are of very dubious provenance.

Fifteenth Dynasty

The Fifteenth Dynasty arose from among the Hyskos people: desert Bedouins who emerged out of the Fertile Crescent (modern Iraq) to establish a short-lived governance over the northern Nile region, and ruled from 1674 to 1535 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Sheshi Ruled either 1 or 3 years 1674 BC- ?
Yakubher -  ?
Khyan - 30-40 Years
Apepi I - 40 Years or more
Khamudy -  ? -1535 BC

Sixteenth Dynasty

The Sixteenth Dynasty was a local group based on the north coast of the Sinai (Pelusium) and ruled from 1663 to around 1555 BC:

Nomen (Praenomen) Comments Dates
- name of the first king is lost here in the Turin King List -
Djehuty (Sekhemresementawy) - 3 years
Sobekhotep VIII (Sekhemresewosertawy) - 16 years
Neferhotep III (Sekhemresankhtawy) - 1 year
Mentuhotepi (Sankhenra) - 1 year
Nebiryraw I (Sewadjenra) - 26 years
Nebiryraw II - 3 months?
- (Semenra) - 1 year?
Bebiankh (Sewoserenra) - 12 years
- (Sekhemreshedwaset) - 3 months?
- names of five kings are lost here in the Turin King List -

Some sources include as many as six more names - Semqen, Khauserre, Seket, Ahetepre, Amu, and Nebkhepeshre (Apepi III) - who are not attested elsewhere. This group seems to have disappeared entirely by 1555 BC.

Abydos Dynasty

The Abydos Dynasty is theorized to have been a series of kings that ruled the area around Abydos and Thinis, north of Thebes from 1650 to 1600 BC. The Turin King list has 16 entries in this position, unfortunately that part of the list is fragmentary and most of the names are missing.
Abydos was at this time a small kingdom pressed between Thebes in the South and the aggressive Hyksos invaders to the North. Four kings are known from archaeological finds at Abydos. It is possible these duplicate other listed kings of the 13th dynasty:

Name Comments Dates
Woseribre Senebkay His tomb has been found at Abydos, near 12th dynasty tombs.
Two entries on the Turin Papyrus are for Woser[...]re.
uncertain
Sekhemrekhutawy Pantjeny Name means "He of Thinis". uncertain
Menkhaure Snaaib - uncertain
Sekhemraneferkhau Wepwawetemsaf -uncertain
[...]hebre Two kings with this partial name are on the Turin Papyrus. uncertain
[...]webenre A king with this partial name is on the Turin Papyrus. uncertain


Seventeenth Dynasty

The Seventeenth Dynasty in Upper (Southern) Egypt was centered in Thebes and ruled from 1650 to 1550 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Rahotep Sekhemrewahkhaw - 1585 BC
Sobekemsaf I - 7 years
Sobekemsaf II -
Nebmaatre Known from artifacts, position uncertain
Intef V the Elder - 3 years
Antef VI Sekhemrewepmaat
(Intef)
-  ?
Antef VII Nubkheperre Questionable ?
Intef VIII Sekhemreherhermaat - -
Sobekemsaf II Sekhemrewadjkhaw Questionable -
Thuty Questionable 1 year
Mentuhotep VI Questionable 1 year
Nebiryerawet I Questionable 6 years
Nebiryerawet II Questionable  ?
Semenmedjatre Questionable  ?
Seuserenre Questionable 12 years
Shedwast Questionable  ?
Intef VII Questionable 3 or more years
Ahmose Senakhtenre - one year
Tao I the Elder Questionable c.1633 BC?
Tao II the Brave
Sekenenre-tao
Probably killed in battle with the Hyksos c.1560-1555 BC
Kamose - 1555-1550 BC


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Pharaoh List Page 2

From the New Kingdom to the Roman Occupation

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