The Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt
Part 1

For pharaohs of the New Kingdom
and later see:
Pharaoh List Page 2


The Neters (Neteru) God-kings:

The Egyptians began their chronology from about 35,000 BC with the rule of ten gods. Mainstream archeologists consider these, and the demi-gods, spirits, and heroes that followed, to be legendary. Others of a more poetic bent believe that these gods may be rulers, or perhaps eras, of Atlantis. (By Edgar Cayce's data only the last portion of Atlantis's history would be represented by the ten) Those that follow could be from an unknown early Egyptian civilization or perhaps the priesthood at Heliopolis.

Name according to
Turin Papyrus
Name according to
Manetho
PtahHephaestus
RaHelios
Su Agathodaemon
SebCronos
OsirisOsiris
SetTyphon
Horus.
Thoth.
Ma.
HorusHorus


The Shemsu Hor - the Companions of Horus - then ruled, followed by the rule of spirits and two groups of presumed mythical kings (heroes).

Conventional archaeology has found simple herders and vilagers inhabited the valley of the Nile beginning about 5500 BC in distinctive phases called the Badarian, Amratian (Naqada I), and Gerzean (Naqada II) periods. The Nile delta, with its' deep layer of silt, has many stories yet to tell.

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The above material is copyright 2006. What follows is adapted from Wikipedia.com and is freely reprintable under the GNU Free Documentation License which is included HERE. It should be noted that dates are approximate and that there is disagreement among experts about much of this material. Spelling of Egyptian names is not standardized, alternative versions are given.
Begin material adapted from Wikipedia.com:

Archaic period

The Archaic period includes the Early Dynastic Period (Pre-Dynastic, sometimes called Dynasty 0), when Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt were ruled as separate kingdoms, and the First and Second Dynasties which saw their unification.

Early dynastic: Lower Egypt

Lower Egypt, known as the Black Land, consisted of the northern Nile and the Nile Delta. (The Nile flows Northward.) The following list may not be complete:

Name Comments Dates
Seka -  ?
Tiu (Tau?) -  ?
Thesh -  ?
Neheb -  ?
Hsekiu -  ?
Wazner (Uatchnar?) c3100 BC?
Mekha -  ?

Early dynastic: Upper Egypt

Upper Egypt, known as the Red Land, consisted of the southern Nile and the adjacent desert. The following list may not be complete (there are many more of uncertain existence):

Name Comments Dates
Serket I Oldest tomb at Umm el-Qa'ab
- had scorpion insignia
c. 3200 BC?
Iry-Hor- existence uncertain c.3150 BC?
Ka-c3100 BC
Serket II Also known as "Scorpion of Egypt" or "King Scorpion"; possibly the same person as Narmer. c.3100 BC
NarmerConsidered by some to be the king who united Upper and Lower Egyptc.3100 BC

First Dynasty

The system of "Dynasties" is based on the groupings provided by Manetho in his book "Aegyptaica" (Egyptian history) written about 300 BC. The system generally, but not exclusively, follows bloodlines but does not appear to have been in use in the earliest times in Egypt. The First Dynasty ruled from c.3050 BC to 2890 BC at Abydos (Thnis).

Name Comments Dates
Menes (Mena)
Hor-Aha
Generally considered to have been the unifier of Upper and Lower Egypt. In earlier lists also known as Min and Meni c.3050 BC
Djer - 2 years
Merneith Regent for Djet and Den -
Djet (Wadj) - 23 years
Den - 14 to 20 years
Anedjib (Adjib) - 26 years
Semerkhet - 9 to 18 years
Qa'a - 2916?-2890

Second Dynasty

The Second Dynasty ruled from 2890 to 2686 BC at Abydos.

NameCommentsDates
Hotepsekhemwy (Hetepsekhemwy)-2890-?
Raneb-39 years
Nynetjer (Ninetjer)-23 years
Wneg-8 years
Senedj-20 years
Seth-Peribsen-17 years
Khasekhem
(later) Khasekhemwy
Rhasekhemui?
May have commissioned the
Gisr el Mudir at Saqqara - A large enclosure of roughly dressed stone, precursor to the pyramids.
His funerary enclosure was at Abydos (Shunet el-Zebib), 14 boats have been found nearby but may be older. Also built a funerary enclosure at Hierakonpolis.
?-2686 BC

Old Kingdom

The Old Kingdom is the period in the third millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilizational complexity and achievement (the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods which mark the high points of civilization in the Nile Valley), spanning the period when Egypt was ruled by the Third Dynasty through the Sixth Dynasty (2630 - 2151 BC). Many Egyptologists also include the Memphite Seventh and Eighth Dynasties in the Old Kingdom as a continuation of the administration centralized at Memphis. The Old Kingdom was followed by a period of disunity and relative cultural decline referred to by Egyptologists as the First Intermediate Period -- or, as the Egyptians called it, the "first illness."

The royal capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom was located at Memphis (slightly south and west of modern Cairo), where Djoser established his court. The Old Kingdom is perhaps best known for the large number of pyramids which were constructed at this time. The Old Kingdom is frequently referred to as "the Age of the Pyramids".

Third Dynasty

The Third Dynasty ruled from 2686 to 2613 BC.

NameCommentsDates
SanakhteFirst known cartouche2686-2668
Nebkain Turin list, now questionable.??
Djoser (Zoser or Djeser)
(Netjerikhet, Netjerykhet or Netcheriche)
Possibly son or step-son of Khasekhemwy.
Commissioned the Step Pyramid at Saqqara designed by Imhotep, considered the first pyramid. Recent evidence suggests that he followed Khasekhemwy.
2668-2649
Sekhemkhet
(Djoser Tati)
Unfinished pyramid or mastaba at Saqqara2649-2643
Zanakht
(Nebka)
Omitted on some lists?
KhabaProbable owner of step pyramid at Zawyet el-Aryan.2643-2637
HuniBuilt at least 8 step pyramids, not used as tombs, each about 60 X 60 feet (18 meters) at various locations in upper and lower Egypt.
Possibly he began the Pyramid at Meidum.
Probable builder of a small mud brick Pyramid at Abu Roasch (Rawash or Ruash).
2637-2613

Fourth Dynasty

The Fourth Dynasty ruled from 2613 to 2498 BC and included the Pharaohs who had the famous Giza Pyramids built: Khufu (Cheops), Khafre (Chephren) and Menkaura (Mycerinus).

Nomen (Praenomen)CommentsDates
Sneferu
(Snefru or Snofru)
Commissioned three large pyramids,
The now broken pyramid at Meidum,
and the Bent and Red Pyramids at Dahshur.
Two small pyramids may also be from his reign.
2613-2589
Khufu (Chufu)Greek form: Cheops
Commissioned the "Great Pyramid" at Giza.
2589-2566
Djedefra
(Djedfra, Djedefre, Radjedef or Redjedef)
pyramid at Abu Roasch (Rawash or Ruash)2566-2558
Khafra (Cha-ef-re, Khafre or Kaphere) Greek form: Chephren, Cephrenes, Kephren or Chefren
Commissioned the second largest Pyramid at Giza
2558-2532
-here some authorities insert Bikheris, following Manetho
May have an unfinished pyramid at Zawyet el-Aryan.
-
Menkaure (Menkaura)Greek form: Mycerinus or Mykerinos
Commissioned the third Giza Pyramid
2532-2503
Shepseskaf (Shepseskare)Unfinished mastaba at Saqqara2503-2498
-here some authorities insert Thampthis, following Manetho-

Fifth Dynasty

The Fifth Dynasty ruled from 2498 to 2345 BC. All the Fifth Dynasty Pharaohs built pyramids, although on a smaller scale than those of the Fourth Dynasty.

NameCommentsDates
UserkafPyramid at Saqqara2498-2491
SahurePyramid at Abusir2487-2477
Neferirkare Kakai
(Neferirkara)
Pyramid at Abusir2477-2467
Queen Khentkawes (wife of Neferirkare Kakai)May have ruled for a time on her own.
Pyramid at Abusir
??
Shepseskare Isi
(Shepseskara)
Probably began a pyramid at Abusir.2467-2460
Neferefre
(Raneferef)
Unfinished pyramid at Abusir.2460-2453
Nyuserre Ini
(Niuserre or Niuserra)
Pyramid at Abusir2453-2422
Menkauhor KaiuBuilt a pyramid at Saqqara, reported by Lepsius in 1842, then lost. Re-discovered (probably) in 2008.2422-2414
Djedkare Isesi
(Djedkara Izezi)
Pyramid at Saqqara2414-2375
Unas
(Unis, Oenas, Ounas or Wenis)
Pyramid at Saqqara
Tomb inscribed with "Pyramid Texts"
- First known "Book of the Dead".
2375-2345

Sixth Dynasty

The Sixth Dynasty ruled from 2345 to 2181 BC.

NameCommentsDates
TetiPyramid at Saqqara2345-2333
Userkare-2333-2332
Pepi I Meryre Radjedef
(Pepy I)
Pyramid at Saqqara 2332-2283
Merenre Nemtyemsaf I
(Merenra)
Pyramid at Saqqara2283-2278
Pepi II Neferkare
(Pepy II)
Perhaps the longest reign of any historic king.
Pyramid at Saqqara
2278-2184
Merenre Nemtyemsaf IIUncertain pharaoh.2184
NitiqretA female ruler.2184-2181

First intermediate period

The First Intermediate Period

The Old Kingdom rapidly collapsed after the death of Pepi II. He had reigned for 94 years, longer than any monarch in history, and died aged 100. The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency because of his advanced age.

The Union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart and regional leaders had to cope with the resulting famine.

Around 2160 BC, a new line of Pharaohs tried to reunite Lower Egypt from their capital in Herakleopolis Magna. In the meantime, however, a rival line based at Thebes, was reuniting Upper Egypt and a clash between the two rival dynasties was inevitable.

Around 2055 BC, a descendant of the Pharaoh Intef III defeated the Herakleopolitan pharaohs, reunited the Two Lands, founded the Eleventh Dynasty and ruled as Mentuhotep II, the first pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom.

Seventh and Eighth Dynasties (combined)

The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties ruled from 2181 to 2160 BC. (This table is based on the Abydos Table from the Temple of Seti I, taken from www.narmer.pl/main/abydos_en.html)

NomenPrenomen Notes
---Neferkara I-
NebiNeferkara-
---Djedkara Shemai-
---Neferkara Khendu-
-some authorities place here Merenhor
SeneferkaNeferkamin-
---Nikara-
---Neferkara Tereru-
---Neferkahor-
---Neferkara Pepyseneb-
--- Neferkamin Anu -
Iby (Ibi or Ity)Qakara
Pyramid at Saqqara
-
---Neferkara II-
Khuwihap Neferkawhor -
---Neferirkara-

Ninth Dynasty

The Ninth Dynasty ruled from 2160 to 2130 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Meryibre Khety (Achthoes I) - 2160- ?
Meribre Khety II -  ?
Neferkare III -  ?
Nebkaure (Acthoes II) -  ?
Setut -  ?
Wakhare Khety I -  ?
Merykare Possible owner of a pyramid at Saqqara  ?
Wankhare Khety II -  ?
Menethoupe I -  ?
Wankhare Khety III -  ?
Khety II -  ?
Khety II's daughter -  ?
Merikare's daughter -  ? -2130

Tenth Dynasty

The Tenth Dynasty was a local group that held sway over Upper Egypt that ruled from 2130 to 2040 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Meryhathor - 2130- ?
Neferkare IV -  ?
Wankare (Acthoes III) -  ?
Merykare -  ?
- -  ? -2040

Eleventh Dynasty

The Eleventh Dynasty was a local group with roots in Lower Egypt that ruled from 2134 to 1991 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Intef I
(Inyotef Sehertawy)
- 2134-2117
Intef II
(Inyotef Wahankh)
- 2117-2069
Intef III
(Inyotef Naktnebtepnufer)
- 2069-2060
Nebhetepre Mentuhotep I
(Menthotp)
Gained control of all Egypt 2040, Middle Kingdom begins. 2060-2010
Sankhkare Mentuhotep II
(Menthotp)
- 2010-1998
Nebtawyre Mentuhotep III
(Menthotp)
- 1997-1991

Middle Kingdom

The Middle Kingdom
In addition to the Twelfth Dynasty, some scholars include the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties in the Middle Kingdom. The Middle Kingdom was a time of expansion of foreign trade. Wealth from this trade eventually led to an invasion by the Hyksos.

Twelfth Dynasty

The Twelfth Dynasty ruled from 1991 to 1802 BC, and was considered by later Egyptians as their greatest age.

Name Comments Dates
Amenemhat I
(Amenemhet I)
-Original Pharaoh to open trade outside Egypt.
Pyramid at Lisht
1991-1962
Senusret I
(Sesostris, Senwosret or Senwosri I)
Pyramid at Lisht 1971-1926
Amenemhat II
(Amenemhet II)
"White" pyramid at Dahshur 1929-1895
Senusret II (Sesostris or Senwosret II) Limestone and mud-brick pyramid at Illahun (el-Lahun 1897-1878
Senusret III (Sesostris or Senwosret III) Pyramid at Dahshur
with a large mortuary temple.
Six boats were discovered in 1893.
1878-1860
Amenemhat III
(Amenemhet III)
"Black" pyramid at Dahshur.
Tomb is a pyramid at Hawara.
The extensive mortuary temple of this pyramid may be the "Egyptian Labyrinth" of classical writers. Mostly destroyed.
1860-1815
Amenemhat IV
(Amenemhet IV)
-Had a coregency lasting at least 1 year, based on an Inscription at Konosso 1815-1807
Queen Sobekneferu
(Nefrusobk Sebekkare)
A rare female ruler. 1807-1803

Second intermediate period

The Second Intermediate Period is a period of disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom.

The Thirteenth Dynasty was much weaker than the Twelfth Dynasty, and was unable to hold onto the land of Egypt. The provincial ruling family in Xois, located in the marshes of the western Delta, broke away from the central authority to form the Fourteenth Dynasty.

The Hyksos made their first appearance during the reign of Sobekhotep IV, and around 1720 BC took control of the town of Avaris (the modern Tell ed-Dab'a/Khata'na). The Eastern Hyksos, led by Salitis, the founder of the Fifteenth Dynasty, overran Egypt during the reign of Dudimose I (little wonder, that.). They are counted as Pharaohs of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Dynasties.

Around the time Memphis fell to the Hyksos, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes declared its independence and set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty. The several dynastys of the second intermediate period sometimes ruled in different areas at the same time.

Thirteenth Dynasty

The Thirteenth Dynasty (following the Turin King List) ruled from 1803 to around 1649 BC and lasted 153 or 154 Yrs according to Manetho. About 70 Pharaohs ruled during this period.

Name Comments Dates
Wegaf
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep or Khutawyre
- Founded the 13th Dynasty. His reign is attested by several Nile Records and Papyri 1803-1799 4 Years
Sekhemkare - Amenemhat V Senebef, brother of Sekhemre Khutawy. 3 years
Amenemhat - 1795-1792
Sehetepre -  ? -1790
Iufni -  ?
Seankhibre -  ?
Semenkare -  ?
Sehetepre -  ?
Sewadjkare -  ?
Nedjemibre -7 Months  ?
Sobekhotep I -  ?
Renseneb -4 Months c. 1775
Hor - c. 1775
Sedjefakare -A well known king attested on numerous stele and other documents -c.5 to 7 Yrs
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep - c. 1767
Khendjer -Minimum 4 Yrs
Pyramid at Saqqara
c. 1765
Imyremeshaw -  ?
Antef V -  ?
Kng Seth -  ?
Sobekhotep III -4 Years & 2 Months c. 1755
Ameny-Qemau
(Amenyqemau)
position uncertain
Unfinished pyramid at Dahshur.
c.1750
Neferhotep I -11 Years 1751-1740
Sobekhotep IV -10 or 11 Yrs 1740-1730
Sobekhotep V - c. 1730
Wahibre Ibiau -10 Yrs & 8 Months c. 1725-1714
Merneferre Ai -23 Yrs & 8 Months c. 1714-1691
Merhetepre Ini -2 Yrs & 2 Months  ?
Seankhenre Sewadtjew -  ?
Mersekhemre Ined -  ?
Sewadjkare Hori -  ?

the position of the following kings is uncertain

Name Comments Dates
Dudimose I - c. 1654
Dudimose II -  ?
Senebmiu -  ?
Mentuhotep V -  ?
Senaayeb -  ?

Fourteenth Dynasty

The Fourteenth Dynasty was a local group from the eastern Delta, based at Xois (Avaris), that ruled from around 1705 to around 1690 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Nehesy - c. 1705
Khakherewre ? -  ?
Nebefawre - c. 1704
Sehebre ? -  ?
Merdjefare - c. 1699
Sewadjkare ? -  ?
Nebdjefare - c. 1694
Webenre ? -  ?
 ? -  ?
-djefare ? -  ?
-webenre - c. 1690

The Turin King List provides an additional 25 names, some fragmentary, and no dates. None are attested to elsewhere, and all are of very dubious provenance.

Fifteenth Dynasty

The Fifteenth Dynasty arose from among the Hyskos people: desert Bedouins who emerged out of the Fertile Crescent (modern Iraq) to establish a short-lived governance over the northern Nile region, and ruled from 1674 to 1535 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Sheshi Ruled either 1 or 3 years 1674- ?
Yakubher -  ?
Khyan - 30-40 Years
Apepi I - 40 Years or more
Khamudy -  ? -1535

Sixteenth Dynasty

The Sixteenth Dynasty was a local group based on the north coast of the Sinai (Pelusium) and ruled from 1663 to around 1555 BC:

Nomen (Praenomen) Comments Dates
- name of the first king is lost here in the Turin King List, and cannot be recovered -
Djehuty (Sekhemresementawy) - 3 years
Sobekhotep VIII (Sekhemresewosertawy) - 16 years
Neferhotep III (Sekhemresankhtawy) - 1 year
Mentuhotepi (Sankhenra) - 1 year
Nebiryraw I (Sewadjenra) - 26 years
Nebiryraw II - 3 months?
- (Semenra) - 1 year?
Bebiankh (Sewoserenra) - 12 years
- (Sekhemreshedwaset) - 3 months?
- names of five kings are lost here in the Turin King List, and cannot be recovered -

Some sources include as many as six more names - Semqen, Khauserre, Seket, Ahetepre, Amu, and Nebkhepeshre (Apepi III) - who are not attested elsewhere. This group seems to have disappeared entirely by 1555 BC.

Seventeenth Dynasty

The Seventeenth Dynasty in Upper (Southern) Egypt was centered in Thebes and ruled from 1650 to 1550 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Rahotep Sekhemrewahkhaw - 1650- ?
Intef V the Elder - 3 years
Antef VI Sekhemrewepmaat -  ?
Antef VII Nubkheperre - ?
Intef VIII Sekhemreherhermaat - -
Sobekemsaf II Sekhemrewadjkhaw - -
Thuty - 1 year
Mentuhotep VI - 1 year
Nebiryerawet I - 6 years
Nebiryerawet II -  ?
Semenmedjatre -  ?
Seuserenre - 12 years
Shedwast -  ?
Intef VII - 3 or more years
Senakhtenre -  ?
Tao I the Elder - c.1633?
Tao II the Brave
Sekenenre-tao
Probably killed in battle with the Hyksos c. 1554
Kamose - 1553-1550

End of material adapted from Wikipedia.com

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