|First God-Kings of Egypt, about 38,000 BC:
Name according to
the Turin Papyrus
|Name according to
The Archaic period includes the Early Dynastic Period (Pre-Dynastic, or Dynasty 0), and the First and Second Dynasties. This period marks a consolidation of power generally into two kingdoms, Lower (North) Egypt and Upper (South) Egypt. These were first ruled as separate kingdoms, and maintained their identity to some extent throughout Egyptian history. In 3050 BC the two kingdoms were united into a single nation.
Lower (Northern) Egypt, known as the Black Land, consisted of Memphis (near modern Cairo) and the Nile Delta. (The Nile flows northward.) The following list is all uncertain.
Upper (Sothern) Egypt, known as the Red Land, consisted of the southern Nile, generally to the first cataract at Philae. The cataract is a rough, fast moving section of the Nile that was as far south as boats could go without portage around the rapids.
Many more rulers are of uncertain existence:
|Serket I (Scorpion I)||Oldest tomb at Umm el-Qa'ab |
- had scorpion insignia
|c. 3200 BC?|
|Serket II (Scorpion II)||Also known as "Scorpion of Egypt" or "King Scorpion"; possibly the same person as Narmer.|
|Narmer||Considered by some to be the king who united Upper and Lower Egypt||c.3100 BC|
The system of "Dynasties" is based on the groupings provided by Manetho in his book "Aegyptaica" (Egyptian history) written about 300 BC. The system generally, but not exclusively, follows bloodlines. This system of grouping kings does not appear to have been in use in early Egypt. Dates in Egypt were computed from the (ritual) beginning of each Pharaoh's rule. Often clay wine stoppers, which record the year of vintage, provide the best record of how long a king ruled. The First Dynasty reigned from c.3050 BC to 2890 BC, their capital was at Abydos (Thnis).
|May be the same as Narmer. Generally considered to have been the unifier of Upper and Lower Egypt. In early lists also known as Min and Meni. Manetho says he was "snatched and killed by a hippopotamus".||c.3050 BC|
|Merneith||Regent for Djet and Den||-|
|Djet (Wadj)||-||23 years|
|Den||-||14 to 20 years|
|Anedjib (Adjib)||-||26 years|
|Semerkhet||-||9 to 18 years|
The Second Dynasty ruled from 2890 to 2686 BC at Abydos.
|Hotepsekhemwy (Hetepsekhemwy)||-||2890 BC-?|
|Raneb (Nebra)||-||39 years|
|Nynetjer (Ninetjer)||-||23 years|
|Wneg (Weneg-Nebty)||-||8 years|
May have commissioned the
Gisr el Mudir at Saqqara - A large enclosure of roughly dressed stone, precursor to the pyramids.
His funerary enclosure was at Abydos (Shunet el-Zebib). Also built a funerary monument at Hierakonpolis.
The Old Kingdom is the Third Dynasty through the Sixth, (2630 - 2151 BC), when Egypt attained its first peak of civilization (the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods which mark the high points of art and architecture in the Nile Valley).
The royal capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom was at Memphis (slightly south and west of modern Cairo), where Djoser established his court. The Old Kingdom is best known for the pyramids which were constructed at this time. The Old Kingdom was a time of art and engineering unmatched in history.
The Third Dynasty ruled from 2686 to 2613 BC.
|Sanakhte||First known cartouche||2686-2668 BC|
|Nebka||in Turin list, now questionable.||??|
|Djoser (Zoser or Djeser)|
(Netjerikhet, Netjerykhet or Netcheriche)
|Possibly son or step-son of Khasekhemwy, recent evidence suggests that he followed his father.|
Commissioned the Step Pyramid at Saqqara designed by Imhotep, considered the first pyramid.
(Djeserteti, Djosertety, Djoserty, Tyreis, Djoser Tati)
|Unfinished step pyramid at Saqqara.||2649-2643 BC|
|Omitted on some lists||?|
|Khaba||Probable owner of step pyramid at Zawyet el-Aryan.||2643-2637 BC|
|Huni||Built at least 8 step pyramids, not used as tombs, each about 60 X 60 feet (18 meters) at various locations in upper and lower Egypt.|
Possibly he began the Pyramid at Meidum.
Probable builder of a small mud brick Pyramid at Abu Roasch (Rawash or Ruash).
The Fourth Dynasty ruled from 2613 to 2498 BC and included the Pharaohs who built the famous Giza Pyramids: Khufu (Cheops), Khafre (Chephren) and Menkaura (Mycerinus). The people of Egypt in the fourth dynasty cut, moved, raised, placed and squared twenty million tons of stone to build their pyramids and associated temples, plazas and causeways. Today we would need a half million full size diesel trucks to move all that stone. Lined up, those trucks would reach half-way around the world. And they did all this without iron.
(Snefru or Snofru)
|Commissioned three large pyramids,|
The now broken pyramid at Meidum,
and the Bent and Red Pyramids at Dahshur.
Two small pyramids may also be from his reign.
|Greek form: Cheops|
Commissioned the "Great Pyramid" at Giza.
Manetho says 63 years, most sources say he ruled two decades, maybe a little longer.
(Djedfra, Djedefre, Radjedef, Ratoises or Redjedef)
|Pyramid at Abu Roasch (Rawash or Ruash), now mostly destroyed.||2566-2558 BC|
|Khafra (Cha-ef-re, Khafre or Kaphere)||Greek form: Chephren, Cephrenes, Kephren or Chefren|
Commissioned the second largest Pyramid at Giza
|Bikheris (Baka, Bakare or Biuris)|
May or may not be Bauefra.
|Probable, listed by Manetho|
May have begun building a pyramid at Zawyet el-Aryan
|Menkaure (Menkaura)||Greek form: Mycerinus or Mykerinos|
Commissioned the third Giza Pyramid. This was the last giant solid stone pyramid built in ancient Egypt. Later pyramids are stone frameworks filled with debris.
|Shepseskaf (Shepseskare, Sisires)||Mastaba at Saqqara||2503-2498 BC|
|Thampthis (Djedefptah, Thamphthis)||Questionable, listed by Manetho||-|
The Fifth Dynasty ruled from 2498 to 2345 BC. All the Fifth Dynasty Pharaohs built pyramids, although on a much smaller scale than those of the Fourth Dynasty.
|Userkaf||Pyramid at Saqqara||2498-2491 BC|
|Sahure||Pyramid at Abusir||2487-2477 BC|
|Pyramid at Abusir||2477-2467 BC|
|Queen Khentkawes (wife of Neferirkare Kakai)||May have ruled for a time on her own.|
Pyramid at Abusir
|Probably began a pyramid at Abusir.||2467-2460 BC|
|Unfinished pyramid at Abusir.||2460-2453 BC|
(Niuserre or Niuserra)
|Pyramid at Abusir||2453-2422 BC|
|Menkauhor Kaiu||Built a pyramid at Saqqara, reported by Lepsius in 1842, then lost. Re-discovered (probably) in 2008.||2422-2414 BC|
|Pyramid at Saqqara||2414-2375 BC|
(Unis, Oenas, Ounas or Wenis)
|Pyramid at Saqqara
Tomb inscribed with "Pyramid Texts"
- First known "Book of the Dead".
The Sixth Dynasty ruled from 2345 to 2181 BC.
|Teti||Pyramid at Saqqara||2345-2333 BC|
|Pepi I Meryre Radjedef |
|Pyramid at Saqqara||2332-2283 BC|
|Merenre Nemtyemsaf I|
|Pyramid at Saqqara||2283-2278 BC|
|Pepi II Neferkare |
|Perhaps the longest reign of any historic king anywhere.
Pyramid at Saqqara
|Merenre Nemtyemsaf II||Uncertain pharaoh.||2184 BC|
|Nitiqret||A female ruler.||2184-2181 BC|
The Old Kingdom was followed by a period of economic and cultural decline referred to by Egyptologists as the First Intermediate Period -- or, as the Egyptians called it, the "first illness."
Egyptian central government rapidly collapsed after the death of Pepi II. He had reigned for 94 years, longer than any monarch in history, and died aged 100. The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency.
The Union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart and regional leaders had to cope with famine.
Around 2160 BC, a new line of Pharaohs tried to reunite Lower (North) Egypt from their capital in Herakleopolis Magna. In the meantime, however, a rival line based at Thebes, was reuniting Upper Egypt and a clash between the two rival dynasties was inevitable.
Pharaohs of the Seventh and Eighth Dynasties had short reigns between 2181 to 2160 BC. (This table is based on the King List in the Temple of Seti I, in Abydos)
|some authorities place here Merenhor|
|Qakara (Iby, Ibi or Ity)||Pyramid at Saqqara|
The Ninth Dynasty ruled from 2160 to 2130 BC.
|Meryibre Khety (Achthoes I)||-||2160 BC - ?|
|Meribre Khety II||-||?|
|Nebkaure (Acthoes II)||-||?|
|Wakhare Khety I||-||?|
|Merykare||Possible owner of a pyramid at Saqqara||?|
|Wankhare Khety II||-||?|
|Wankhare Khety III||-||?|
|Khety II's daughter||-||?|
|Merikare's daughter||-||? -2130 BC|
The Tenth Dynasty was a local group that held sway over Upper Egypt that ruled from 2130 to 2040 BC.
|Meryhathor||-||2130 BC - ?|
|Wankare (Acthoes III)||-||?|
Around 2055 BC, a descendant of the Pharaoh Intef III defeated the Herakleopolitan pharaohs, reunited the Two Lands, founded the Eleventh Dynasty and ruled as Mentuhotep II, the first pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom.
The Eleventh Dynasty was a local group with roots in Lower Egypt that ruled from 2134 to 1991 BC.
|Nebhetepre Mentuhotep I
|Gained control of all Egypt in 2040 BC, Middle Kingdom begins.||2060-2010 BC|
|Sankhkare Mentuhotep II
|Built first temple at Deir el-Bahari||2010-1998 BC|
|Nebtawyre Mentuhotep III
The Middle Kingdom
In addition to the Twelfth Dynasty, some scholars include the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties in the Middle Kingdom. The Middle Kingdom was a time of expansion of foreign trade. Wealth from this trade eventually led to an invasion by the Hyksos.
The Twelfth Dynasty ruled from 1991 to 1802 BC, and was considered by later Egyptians as their greatest age.
|-Original Pharaoh to open trade outside Egypt.
Pyramid at Lisht
(Sesostris, Senwosret or Senwosri I)
|Pyramid at Lisht
Herodotus says he invaded Europe and colonized Colchia in the western Caucasus, modern Georgia.
Credited with the first Obelisk, at Heliopolis.
|"White" pyramid at Dahshur||1929-1895 BC|
|Senusret II (Sesostris or Senwosret II)||Limestone and mud-brick pyramid at Illahun (el-Lahun)||1897-1878 BC|
|Senusret III (Sesostris or Senwosret III)||Pyramid at Dahshur
with a large mortuary temple.
Six boats were discovered in 1893.
|"Black" pyramid at Dahshur.
Tomb is a pyramid at Hawara.
The extensive mortuary temple of this pyramid may be the "Egyptian Labyrinth" of classical writers. Mostly destroyed.
|-Had a coregency lasting at least 1 year, based on an Inscription at Konosso||1815-1807 BC|
The Second Intermediate Period is a period of disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom.
The Thirteenth Dynasty was much weaker than the Twelfth Dynasty, and was unable to hold onto the land of Egypt. The provincial ruling family in Xois, located in the marshes of the western Delta, broke away from the central authority to form the Fourteenth Dynasty.
The Hyksos made their first appearance during the reign of Sobekhotep IV, and around 1720 BC took control of the town of Avaris (the modern Tell ed-Dab'a/Khata'na). The Eastern Hyksos, led by Salitis, the founder of the Fifteenth Dynasty, overran Egypt during the reign of Dudimose I (little wonder, that.). They are counted as Pharaohs of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Dynasties.
Around the time Memphis fell to the Hyksos, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes declared its independence and set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty. The several dynasties of the second intermediate period sometimes ruled in different areas at the same time.
The Thirteenth Dynasty (following the Turin King List) ruled from 1803 to around 1649 BC and lasted 153 or 154 Yrs according to Manetho. About 70 Pharaohs ruled during this period.
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep or Khutawyre
|- Founded the 13th Dynasty. His reign is attested by several Nile Records and Papyri||1803-1799 BC 4 Years|
|Sekhemkare||- Amenemhat V Senebef, brother of Sekhemre Khutawy.||3 years|
|Sehetepre||-||? -1790 BC|
|Renseneb||-4 Months||c. 1775|
|Awybre Hor I
|Tomb found partly intact in Dashur.||c. 1775|
|Sedjefakare||-A well known king attested on numerous stele and other documents||-c.5 to 7 Yrs|
|Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep||-||c. 1767 BC|
|Khendjer||-Minimum 4 Yrs
Pyramid at Saqqara
|c. 1765 BC|
|Sobekhotep III||-4 Years & 2 Months||c. 1755|
Unfinished pyramid at Dahshur.
|Neferhotep I||-11 Years||1751-1740 BC|
|Sobekhotep IV||-10 or 11 Yrs||1740-1730 BC|
|Sobekhotep V||-||c. 1730 BC|
|Wahibre Ibiau||-10 Yrs & 8 Months||c. 1725-1714 BC|
|Merneferre Ai||-23 Yrs & 8 Months||c. 1714-1691 BC|
|Merhetepre Ini||-2 Yrs & 2 Months||?|
the position of the following kings is uncertain
|Dudimose I||-||c. 1654 BC|
The Fourteenth Dynasty was a local group from the eastern Delta, based at Xois (Avaris), that ruled from around 1705 to around 1690 BC.
|Nehesy||-||c. 1705 BC|
|Nebefawre||-||c. 1704 BC|
|Merdjefare||-||c. 1699 BC|
|Nebdjefare||-||c. 1694 BC|
|-webenre||-||c. 1690 BC|
The Turin King List provides an additional 25 names, some fragmentary, and no dates. None are attested to elsewhere, and all are of very dubious provenance.
The Fifteenth Dynasty arose from among the Hyskos people: desert Bedouins who emerged out of the Fertile Crescent (modern Iraq) to establish a short-lived governance over the northern Nile region, and ruled from 1674 to 1535 BC.
|Sheshi||Ruled either 1 or 3 years||1674 BC- ?|
|Apepi I||-||40 Years or more|
|Khamudy||-||? -1535 BC|
The Sixteenth Dynasty was a local group based on the north coast of the Sinai (Pelusium) and ruled from 1663 to around 1555 BC:
|-||name of the first king is lost here in the Turin King List||-|
|Djehuty (Sekhemresementawy)||-||3 years|
|Sobekhotep VIII (Sekhemresewosertawy)||-||16 years|
|Neferhotep III (Sekhemresankhtawy)||-||1 year|
|Mentuhotepi (Sankhenra)||-||1 year|
|Nebiryraw I (Sewadjenra)||-||26 years|
|Nebiryraw II||-||3 months?|
|- (Semenra)||-||1 year?|
|Bebiankh (Sewoserenra)||-||12 years|
|- (Sekhemreshedwaset)||-||3 months?|
|-||names of five kings are lost here in the Turin King List||-|
Some sources include as many as six more names - Semqen, Khauserre, Seket, Ahetepre, Amu, and Nebkhepeshre (Apepi III) - who are not attested elsewhere. This group seems to have disappeared entirely by 1555 BC.
The Abydos Dynasty is theorized to have been a series of kings that ruled the area around Abydos and Thinis, north of Thebes from 1650 to 1600 BC. The Turin King list has 16 entries in this position, unfortunately that part of the list is fragmentary and most of the names are missing.
Abydos was at this time a small kingdom pressed between Thebes in the South and the aggressive Hyksos invaders to the North. Four kings are known from archaeological finds at Abydos. It is possible these duplicate other listed kings of the 13th dynasty:
|Woseribre Senebkay||His tomb has been found at Abydos, near 12th dynasty tombs.
Two entries on the Turin Papyrus are for Woser[...]re.
|Sekhemrekhutawy Pantjeny||Name means "He of Thinis".||uncertain|
|[...]hebre||Two kings with this partial name are on the Turin Papyrus.||uncertain|
|[...]webenre||A king with this partial name is on the Turin Papyrus.||uncertain|
The Seventeenth Dynasty in Upper (Southern) Egypt was centered in Thebes and ruled from 1650 to 1550 BC:
|Rahotep Sekhemrewahkhaw||-||1585 BC|
|Sobekemsaf I||-||7 years|
|Nebmaatre||Known from artifacts, position uncertain|
|Intef V the Elder||-||3 years|
|Antef VI Sekhemrewepmaat
|Antef VII Nubkheperre||Questionable||?|
|Intef VIII Sekhemreherhermaat||-||-|
|Sobekemsaf II Sekhemrewadjkhaw||Questionable||-|
|Mentuhotep VI||Questionable||1 year|
|Nebiryerawet I||Questionable||6 years|
|Intef VII||Questionable||3 or more years|
|Ahmose Senakhtenre||-||one year|
|Tao I the Elder||Questionable||c.1633 BC?|
|Tao II the Brave
|Probably killed in battle with the Hyksos||c.1560-1555 BC|