Library of Egyptian Secrets
The Tomb of Pharaoh Seti I
The limestone relief works in the tomb of Seti I and those in the temple he built at Abydos are the finest in all of Egyptian history and among the greatest works of art in the world. It is curious that art should reach this height under this pharaoh, a military man, and then decline in the bigger-is-better attitude of his son Rameses II. While specific compositions are justly well respected, the overall standard is truly extraordinary.
The artists worked in teams, their names are not known. Perhaps there was one master who was able to bring the skill of a number of artists to such a high level, or perhaps it was Pharaoh Seti himself who so encouraged and inspired his workers. These artists expected their work to be sealed in the tomb for all time. Fortunately for us, over 3000 years later their work is to some degree available in reproductions such as these.
The Discovery of the Tomb of Seti Iby Giovanni Battista Belzoni (published 1820)
On the 16th October, 1817 I recommenced my excavations in the
valley of Beban el Malook (the Valley of the Kings), and pointed out the fortunate spot, which
has paid me for all the trouble I took in my researches. I may call
this a fortunate day, one of the best perhaps of my life. Fortune has given me that satisfaction, that extreme
pleasure, which wealth cannot purchase - the pleasure of discovering
what has been long sought in vain, and of presenting the world with a
new and perfect monument of Egyptian antiquity. A tomb which can be recorded
as superior to any other in point of grandeur, style, and preservation,
appearing as if just finished on the day we entered it.
The vulture Nekhbet, guardian of the tomb of Seti I
by J. Ricci, an artist in the Belzoni expedition, 1820.
I caused the earth to be opened
at the foot of a steep hill, under a torrent, which, when it rains,
pours a great quantity of water over the very spot I have caused to be
dug. No one could imagine that the ancient Egyptians would make the
entrance into such an immense and superb excavation just under a
torrent of water, but I had strong reasons to suppose that there was a
tomb in that place from indications I had observed in my pursuit.
Fellahs who were accustomed to dig were all of opinion that there was
nothing in that spot, as the situation of this tomb differed from that
of any other. I continued the work however, and the next day, the 17th,
in the evening, we perceived that part of the rock was cut, and
formed the entrance.
On the 18th, early in the morning, the task was
resumed and about noon the workmen reached the entrance, which was
eighteen feet below the surface of the ground. The appearance
indicated that the tomb was of the first rate, but still I did not
expect to find such a one as it really proved to be.
advanced till they saw that it was probably a large tomb when they
protested they could go no farther, the tomb was so much choked up with
large stones which they could not get out of the passage. I descended,
examined the place, pointed out to them where they might dig, and in an
hour there was room enough for me to enter through a passage that the
earth had left under the ceiling of the first corridor. I perceived
immediately by the painting on the ceiling, and by the hieroglyphics in
basso relievo, which were to be seen where the earth did not reach,
that this was the entrance into a large and magnificent tomb.
the end of this corridor I came to a staircase twenty-three feet long. From the foot of the staircase I entered another
corridor, each side sculptured with hieroglyphics in
basso relievo, and painted. The ceiling also is finely painted, and in
pretty good preservation.
The more I saw the more I was eager to see,
such being the nature of man, but I was checked in my anxiety at this
time, for at the end of this passage I reached a large pit which
intercepted my progress. This pit is thirty feet deep, and fourteen
feet by twelve feet wide. The upper part of the pit is
adorned with figures.
The passages from the entrance all the way to this pit have an
inclination downward of an angle of eighteen degrees.
The descending passage, tomb of Seti I
By J. Ricci, 1820.
On the opposite
side of the pit facing the entrance I perceived a small aperture two
feet wide and two feet six inches high. At the bottom of the wall there was a
quantity of rubbish. A rope fastened to a piece of wood that was laid
across the passage against the projections which form a kind of door,
appears to have been used by the ancients for descending into the pit. From the small aperture on the opposite side hung another rope which
reached the bottom, no doubt for the purpose of ascending. We could
clearly perceive that the water which entered the passages from the
torrents of rain ran into this pit. The wood and rope fastened to
it crumbled to dust on touching them.
At the bottom of the pit were
several pieces of wood, placed against the side of it, so as to assist
the person who was to ascend by the rope into the aperture. I saw the
impossibility of proceeding at the moment.
next day, the 19th, by means of a long beam we succeeded in sending a
man up into the aperture, and having contrived to make a bridge of two
beams, we crossed the pit. The little aperture we found to be an
opening forced through a wall that had entirely closed the entrance,
which was as large as the corridor. The Egyptians had closely shut it
up, plastered the wall over, and painted it like the rest of the sides
of the pit. But for the aperture, it would have been impossible
to suppose that there was any farther to proceed. Any one would
conclude that the tomb ended with the pit.
The rope in the inside of
the wall did not fall to dust, but remained pretty strong, the water
not having reached it at all. The wood to which it was attached was
in good preservation. It was owing to this method of keeping the damp
out of the inner parts of the tomb that they are so well preserved. I
observed some cavities at the bottom of the well, but found nothing in
them, nor any communication from the bottom to any other place. We could not doubt it being made to receive the waters
from the rain, which happens occasionally in these mountains.
we had passed through the little aperture we found ourselves in a
beautiful hall, twenty-seven feet by twenty-five feet, in which were four pillars three feet square. In the front
of this first hall, facing the entrance, is one of the finest compositions
that ever was made by the Egyptians, for nothing like it can be seen in
any part of Egypt.
By Salvador Cherubini, 1832-44.
It consists of four figures as large as life. The
god Osiris sitting on his throne, receiving the homage of a hero, who
is introduced by a hawk-headed deity. Behind the throne is a female
figure as if in attendance on the great god. The whole group is
surrounded by hieroglyphics, and enclosed in a frame richly adorned
with symbolical figures. The winged globe is above, with the wings
spread over all, and a line of serpents crowns the whole. The figures
and paintings are in such perfect preservation, that they give the most
correct idea of their ornaments and decorations. At the end of this room, which I call the entrance-hall is a large door, from which three steps lead
down into a chamber with two pillars. This is twenty-eight feet by twenty-five feet. I gave it the name of the Drawing-Room, for it is
covered with figures which, though only outlined, are so fine and
perfect that you would think they had been drawn only the day before.
The entrance-hall, drawing room and
second descending passage, tomb of Seti I
By J. Ricci, 1820.
Returning into the Entrance-Hall, we saw on the left of the aperture a
large staircase which descended into a beautiful corridor. We perceived that the paintings became more
perfect as we advanced farther into the interior. They retain their
gloss, or a kind of varnish over the colors, which had a beautiful
effect. The figures are painted on a white background.
At the end of this
corridor we descended ten steps, which I call the small stairs, into
another corridor. From this
we entered a chamber, twenty feet by thirteen feet, to which I gave the name of the Room of Beauties; for it
is adorned with the most beautiful figures in basso relievo, and painted. When standing in the center of this chamber the
traveler is surrounded by an assembly of Egyptian gods and goddesses.
Pharaoh Seti and The Goddess Isis,
from the room of beauties, tomb of Seti I.
Both reliefs were cut from the wall by the Champollion expedition.
(L) Reproduction by S. Cherubini from that expedition, 1832, now in Italy.
(R) photo from the Louvre, Paris (EgyptArchive).
The entrance is decorated with two figures, on each side, a male and a female,
as large as life. The female appears to represent Isis, having, as
usual, the horns and globe on her head. She seems ready to receive the
hero, who is about to enter the regions of immortality. The garments of
this figure are so well preserved that nothing which has yet been
brought before the public can give a more correct idea of Egyptian
customs. The figure of the hero is covered with a veil, or transparent
linen, folded over his shoulder and covering his whole body, which
gives him a very graceful appearance. Isis is apparently covered with a
net, every mesh of which contains some hieroglyphic, serving to
embellish the dress of the goddess. The necklace, bracelets, belt, and
other ornaments are so well arranged that they produce the most
pleasing effect, particularly by the artificial lights, all being
intended to conduce to this purpose.
Proceeding farther, we entered a large hall, twenty-seven feet by twenty-six feet. In this hall are two rows of
square pillars, three on each side of the entrance, forming a line with
the corridors. At each side of this hall is a small chamber.
This hall I termed the Hall of Pillars; the little room on the right,
Isis's Room, as in it a large cow is painted, of which I shall give a
description hereafter; that on the left, the Room of Mysteries, from
the mysterious figures it exhibits.
At the end of this hall we entered
a large saloon with an arched roof or ceiling, which is separated from
the Hall of Pillars only by a step; so that the two may be reckoned
one. The saloon is thirty-one feet by twenty-seven feet.
The room of beauties, hall of pillars and saloon, tomb of Seti I.
By J. Ricci, 1820.
the right of the saloon is a small chamber without any thing in it,
roughly cut, as if unfinished, and without painting: on the left we
entered a chamber with two square pillars, twenty-five feet by twenty-two feet. This I called the Sideboard Room,
as it has a projection of three feet in the form of a sideboard all round,
which was perhaps intended to contain the articles necessary for the
We entered by a large door into another
chamber with four pillars, one of which is fallen down. This chamber is
forty-three feet by seventeen feet. It is covered with white plaster, where
the rock did not cut smoothly, but there is no painting on it. I named
it the Bull's, or Apis' Room, as we found the carcass of a bull in it,
embalmed with asphaltum; and also, scattered in various places, an
immense quantity of small wooden figures of mummies six or eight inches
long, and covered with asphaltum to preserve them.
There were some
other figures of fine earth baked, coloured blue, and strongly
varnished. On each side of the two little rooms were some wooden
statues standing erect, four feet high, with a circular hollow inside,
as if to contain a roll of papyrus, which I have no doubt they did. We
found likewise fragments of other statues of wood and of composition.
The roof of the burial chamber (saloon) contained two so-called zodiacs.
By artist J. Ricci, 1820.
the description of what we found in the center of the saloon, and which
I have reserved till this place, merits the most particular attention.
There is not its' equal in the world, and being such as we had no idea
could exist. It is a sarcophagus of the finest oriental alabaster, nine
feet five inches long, and three feet seven inches wide. Its thickness
is only two inches; and it is transparent when a light is placed in
the inside of it. It is minutely sculptured within and without with
several hundred figures, which do not exceed two inches in height, and
represent as I suppose, the whole of the funeral procession and
ceremonies relating to the deceased. I cannot give an adequate idea of this beautiful and invaluable
piece of antiquity, and can only say, that nothing has been brought
into Europe from Egypt that can be compared with it.
The cover was not
there. It had been taken out and broken into several pieces, which we
found in digging before the first entrance.
From the tomb of Seti I
By J. Ricci, 1820.
The sarcophagus was over a
staircase in the center of the saloon, which communicated with a
subterraneous passage, leading downwards three hundred feet in length. It
was nearly filled up by the falling in of the upper part. I measured the distance from the
entrance, and also the rocks above, and found that the passage reaches
nearly half way through the mountain to the upper part of the valley. I
have reason to suppose that this passage was used to come into the
tomb by another entrance. This could not be after the death of the
person who was buried there, Seti, for at the bottom of the stairs just under
the sarcophagus a wall was built. Some
large blocks of stone were placed under the sarcophagus horizontally,
level with the pavement of the saloon, that no one might perceive any
stairs or subterranean passage was there.
With the assistance of Mr.
Ricci I have made drawings of all the figures, hieroglyphics, emblems,
ornaments, etc. that are to be seen in this tomb; and by great
perseverance I have taken impressions of every thing in wax. To
accomplish the work has been a laborious task, that occupied me more
than twelve months. The drawings show the respective places
of the figures, so that if a building were erected exactly on the same
plan, and of the same size, the figures might be placed in their
situations precisely as in the original, and thus produce in Europe a
tomb in every point equal to that in Thebes.
It is useless to proceed any further in the description of
this heavenly place, as I can assure the reader he can form but a very
faint idea of it from the trifling account my pen is able to give. Should I be so fortunate, however, as to succeed in erecting an exact
model of this tomb in Europe, the beholder will acknowledge the
impossibility of doing it justice in a description.
From: "Narrative of the Operations and Recent Discoveries Within the Pyramids, Temples, Tombs and Excavations in Egypt and Nubia"
by Giovanni Battista Belzoni, 1820.
Pharaoh Seti I, from the second descending passage.
By J. Ricci, artist in the Belzoni expedition.
Mr. Belzoni did create in London a replica of two rooms from the tomb of Seti I. It would be worthwhile to have such an exhibition open today. The alabaster sarcophagus of Seti I was removed to England and sold to a collector. It is now in a private museum.
From the tomb of Seti I.
Hand colored photo, Elysian Fields.
Giovanni Belzoni described the techniques
used by the artists who worked for Seti:
Creating an Egyptian Tomb.
Pharaoh Seti's masterpiece,
the Temple at: Abydos
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