The Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt
Part 2

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New Kingdom

The New Kingdom is the period covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasty of Egypt, from the 16th century BC to the 11th century BC.

The New Kingdom began with the expulsion of the Hyksos (Hykdod) from Northern Egypt. A succession of Pharaohs enlarged the country, eventually experiencing Egypt's greatest territorial extent. Egypt extended far into Nubia in the south, Libya in the west, and held wide territories in the Near East. Egyptian armies fought with Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria.

Eighteenth Dynasty

The Eighteenth Dynasty ruled from 1550 to 1295 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Ahmose I
(Ahmosis I)
Son of Sekenenre-tao (Seventeenth dynasty)
Expelled the Hyksos from Northern Egypt.
Amenhotep I (Amenophis) Began the Temple of Karnak, Thebes. First Pharaoh buried in the Valley of the Kings 1525-1504
Thutmose I (Thutmosis) - 1504-1492
Thutmose II (Thutmosis) - 1492-1479
Queen Hatshepsut
Built the Temple at Deir El Bahari. 1473-1458
Thutmose III (Thutmosis) Dominated early in his reign by his stepmother Hatshepsut; after she died he began expanding Egyptian rule into the near east. 1479-1425
Amenhotep II (Amenophis) - 1427-1400
Thutmose IV (Thutmosis) - 1400-1390
Amenhotep III (Amenophis) Built much of the Temple of Luxor on the site of an older Opet shrine. Built the Colossi of Memnon. 1390-1352
Amenhotep IV (Amenophis)
/ Akhenaten (Akhenaton)
(Neferkheprure waenre)
Founder of a brief period of monotheism ("Atenism") in Egypt, the worship of the Sun as symbol of the only God. During his rule there developed a very distinctive artistic style. His queen, Nefertiti, ruled as an equal.
Moved the capitol to Akhetaten.
Meritaten Daughter of Akhenaten, rule uncertain???
Smenkhkare (Smenkhare) Uncertain relationship to Akhenaten. Unproven speculation that this is Nefertiti, wife of Akhenaten. (as Neferneferuaten). Other scholars believe he is a brother or son of Akhenaten. 1338-1336
Tutankhamun (originally Tutankhaten)
(King Tut)
Probably the son of Akhenaten. Became Pharaoh at about age 8. Reinstated the old polytheistic religion and moved the capitol back to Thebes. Only Pharaoh whose tomb has been found largely intact.1336-1327
Kheperkheprure Ai (Ay or Aya)Regent for Tutankhamun, took the throne after Tut's death. Probably the father of Queen Nefertiti.1327-1323
Horemheb (Haremhab)Born a commoner.
Military General of Northern Egypt for Akhenaton and advisor to Tutankhamun

Nineteenth Dynasty

The Nineteenth Dynasty ruled from 1295 to 1186 BC:

Ramesses I (Rameses)-1295-1294
Seti I
(Sethos I or Sety I))
Re-established the military power of Egypt.
AKA Samethis, Psammetichus or Psammuthis.
Ramesses II the Great
(Rameses Sesostris or Ramessu)
The Pharaoh usually associated with Moses.
Reached a stalemate with the Hittites at the Battle of Kadesh in 1275 BC, after which the earliest known peace treaty was signed in 1258 BC. Built more temples and had more statues of himself than any other Pharaoh.
Merneptah (Merenptah)A stele (carved stone monument) describing his campaigns in Libya and Palestine contains the first known reference to the Israelites.1213-1203
Seti II (Sethos)-1200-1194
Merneptah Siptah-1194-1188
Queen Twosret
(Tawosret or Twosre)
Widow of Seti II
Country largely ruled by a Syrian named Bay.

Twentieth Dynasty

The Twentieth Dynasty ruled from 1185 to 1070 BC:

NameComments Dates
Setnakhte (Sethnakhte)-1186-1183
Ramesses III (Rameses)Fought the Sea Peoples in 1175 BC.1183-1152
Ramesses IV (Rameses)-1152-1146
Ramesses V (Rameses)-1146-1142
Ramesses VI (Rameses)-1142-1134
Ramesses VII (Rameses)-1134-1126
Ramesses VIII (Rameses)-1126-1124
Ramesses IX (Rameses)-1124-1106
Ramesses X (Rameses)-1106-1102
Ramesses XI (Rameses)-1102-1069

Third intermediate period

The Third Intermediate Period marked the end of the New Kingdom after the collapse of the Egyptian empire. A number of dynasties of Libyan origin ruled, giving this period its alternative name of the Libyan Period.

High Priests of Amun at Thebes

While not regarded as a dynasty per se, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes were nevertheless of such power and influence that they were effectively the rulers of Upper Egypt from 1080 to 945 BC.

NameComments Dates
Pinedjem I-1070-1032
Nesbanebdjed IIAlso known as Smendes II992-990
Pinedjem II-990-969
Psusennes IIImay be the same person as Psusennes II969-945

Twenty-first Dynasty

The Twenty-first Dynasty was based at Tanis and was a relatively weak group. Theoretically, they were rulers of all Egypt, but in practice their influence was limited to Lower Egypt. They ruled from 1069 to 945 BC

NameComments Dates
Nesbanebdjed IAlso known as Smendes I1069-1043
Psusennes I-1039-991
Osorkon the Elder(Osochor) Also known as Osorkon I984-978
Psusennes II-959-945

Twenty-second Dynasty

The pharaohs of the Twenty-second Dynasty were Libyans, ruling from around 945 to 720 BC:

NameComments Dates
Shoshenq I (Sheshonq)The biblical Shishaq945-924
Osorkon I (Osochor)Also known as Osorkon II 924-889
Shoshenq II (Sheshonq)-890-890/889
Takelot I-889-874
HarsieseA rebel, at Thebes875-862
Osorkon II (Osochor)Also known as Osorkon III874-834
Takelot IInow believed to be in 23rd Dynasty.-
Shoshenq III (Sheshonq)-834-795
Shoshenq IV-795-782
Shoshenq V-776-740
Osorkon V (Osochor)Also known as Osorkon IV740-720

Twenty-third Dynasty

The Twenty-third Dynasty was a local group, again of Libyan origin, based at Leontopolis, that ruled from 836 to 720 BC: Other lines of rulers controlled Thebes (at times), Hermopopolis, Herakleopolis and Tanis.

NameComments Dates
Takelot IIPreviously thought to be a 22nd Dynasty pharaoh, he is now considered to be the founder of the 23rd837-813
PedubastA rebel - seized Thebes from Takelot II 826-801
Iuput I-812-811
Shoshenq VISuccessor to Pedubast801-795
Osorkon III (Osochor)Son of Takelot II- recovered Thebes, then proclaimed himself king. May also be known as Osorkon IV. 795-767
Takelot III-773-765
Iuput II-762-728

The Libu

Not reckoned a dynasty as such, the Libu were yet another group of western nomads (Libyans) who occupied the western Delta from 805 to 732 BC.

NameComments Dates

Twenty-fourth Dynasty

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty was a short-lived rival dynasty located in the western Delta (Sais, known as Zau to the Egyptians), with only two Pharaohs ruling from 732 to 720 BC.

NameComments Dates
(Tefnakht Shepsesre)
(Bocchoris or Bakenenref Wahkare)
- 725-720

Late period

The Late Period runs from 732 BC until Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC, and includes periods of rule by Nubians, Persians, and Macedonians.

Twenty-fifth Dynasty

Nubians (Ethiopians) invaded Egypt in 732 BC and took the throne of Egypt, establishing the Twenty-fifth Dynasty which ruled until 656 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Piye King of Nubia; conquered Egypt in 20th year; his full reign was at least 24 years, possibly 30+ years 752-721
or d. 716
Shebitku (Shebitko)Synchronism with Sargon II of Assyria establishes his accession date at 707/706 BC707-690
Most successful of Nubian Pharaohs,
built monuments across Egypt,
greatly expanded Gebel Barkal.
Tantamanidied 653664-656

They were ultimately driven back into Nubia, where they established a kingdom at Napata (656-590), and, later, at MeroŽ (590 BC-4th cent. AD). There is speculation that priestly secret knowledge was obtained by the Nubians while they ruled Egypt, then transmitted to the present-day Dogon of West Africa and to the Olmec of America.

Twenty-sixth Dynasty

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty ruled from around 672 to 525 BC at Sais

NameComments Dates
Necho I - 672 - 664 BC
Psamtik I (Psammetichus)
(Psamtek Wahibre)
descendant of Tefnakhte664 - 610 BC
Necho II (Wehimbre)Herodotus records that during his reign an Egyptian expedition sailed around Africa.610 - 595 BC
Psamtik II (Psammetichus)-595 - 589 BC
Wahibre (Apries)-589 - 570 BC
Ahmose II
(Amasis Khunimbre)
-570 - 526 BC
Psammetichus III -526 - 525 BC

Twenty-seventh Dynasty

Egypt was conquered by the Persian Empire in 525 BC and annexed by the Persians until 404 BC. The Achaemenid shahs were acknowledged as pharaohs in this era, forming a "Twenty-seventh" Dynasty:

NameComments Dates
Cambyses II-525 - 521 BC
Smerdis the Usurper-522 - 521 BC
Darius I the Great-521 - 486 BC
Xerxes I the Great-486 - 465 BC
Artabanus the Hyrcanian-465 - 464 BC
Artaxerxes I Longhand-464 - 424 BC
Xerxes IIclaimant424 - 423 BC
Sogdianusclaimant424 - 423 BC
Darius II-424 - 404 BC

Twenty-eighth Dynasty

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty lasted only 6 years, from 404 to 398 BC, with one Pharaoh:

Name CommentsDates
Amyrtaeus (Amrytaios)Descendant of the Saite pharaohs of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty; led a successful revolt against the Persians 404 - 398 BC

Twenty-ninth Dynasty

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty ruled from 398 to 380 BC:

NameComments Dates
Nefaarud IAlso known as Nepherites I398 - 393 BC
Psammuthes (Psammuthis)-393 BC
Hakor (Hakoris or Achoris)-393 - 380 BC
Nefaarud II (Nepherites II)-380 BC

Thirtieth Dynasty

The Thirtieth Dynasty ruled from 380 until Egypt once came more under Persian rule in 343 BC:

NameComments Dates
Nectanebo IAlso known as Nekhtnebef
or Napktnebef Kheperkare
380 - 362 BC
Teos of Egypt-362 - 360 BC
Nectanebo II-360 - 343 BC

Thirty-first Dynasty

Egypt again came under the control of the Achaemenid Persians. After the practice of Manetho, the Persian rulers from 343 to 332 BC are occasionally designated as the Thirty-first Dynasty:

NameComments Dates
Artaxerxes IIIEgypt came under Persian rule for the second time343 - 338 BC
Artaxerxes IV ArsesOnly reigned in Lower Egypt338 - 336 BC
KhabbabashLeader of a Nubian revolt in Upper Egypt338 - 335 BC
Darius III CodomannusUpper Egypt returned to Persian control in 335 BC336 - 332 BC

Argead Dynasty

The Macedonians under Alexander the Great ushered in the Hellenistic (Greek) period with his conquest of Persia and Egypt. The Argeads ruled from 332 to 309 BC:

Alexander III the Great Conquered Persia, Egypt and all the way to India. It is said he died (in his early thirties) because there was nothing more he wished to conquer, perhaps the only ruler in history to do so. 332 - 323 BC
Philip III Arrhidaeus of MacedonFeeble-minded half-brother of Alexander III the Great323 - 317 BC
Alexander IV of MacedonSon of Alexander III the Great and Roxana317 - 309 BC

Ptolemaic Dynasty

The second Hellenistic dynasty, the Ptolemies ruled Egypt from 305 BC until Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC (whenever two dates overlap, that means there was a co-regency). These rulers, of Greek extraction, were in frequent conflict over the throne. Their wives often joined the fray, adding to the confusion. One would imagine the people of Egypt wished to return to the days of Divine Pharaohs, whose legitimacy was rarely challenged.

Name CommentsDates
Ptolemy I SoterAbdicated in 285 BC; died in 283 BC 305 - 285 BC
Berenice IWife of Ptolemy I ?-285 BC
Ptolemy II Philadelphos
Credited with founding the
Library at Alexandria
288 - 246 BC
Arsinoe IWife of Ptolemy II284/81 -ca. 274 BC
Arsinoe IIWife of Ptolemy II277 - 270 BC
Ptolemy III Euergetes I-246 - 222 BC
Berenice IIWife of Ptolemy III244/3 - 222 BC
Ptolemy IV Philopator-222 - 204 BC
Arsinoe IIIWife of Ptolemy IV220 - 204 BC
Ptolemy V EpiphanesUpper Egypt in revolt 207 - 186 BC
Rosetta stone dates from his reign.
204 - 180 BC
Cleopatra IWife of Ptolemy V, co-regent with Ptolemy VI during his minority193 - 176 BC
Ptolemy VI Philometor
Died 145 BC180 - 164 BC
Cleopatra IIWife of Ptolemy VI173 - 164 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Installed by Seleucid Antiochus IV Epiphanes in 170 BC; ruled jointly with Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II from 169 to 164 BC. Died 116 BC171 - 163 BC
Ptolemy VI PhilometorEgypt under the control of Ptolemy VIII 164 BC - 163 BC; Ptolemy VI restored 163 BC163 - 145 BC
Cleopatra IIMarried Ptolemy VIII; led revolt against him in 131 BC and became sole ruler of Egypt.163 - 127 BC
Ptolemy VII Neos PhilopatorProclaimed co-ruler by father; later ruled under regency of his mother Cleopatra II144 - 145 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes IIRestored145 - 131 BC
Cleopatra IIISecond wife of Ptolemy VIII 142 - 131 BC
Ptolemy MemphitisProclaimed King by Cleopatra II; soon killed by Ptolemy VIII131 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes IIRestored127 - 116 BC
Cleopatra IIIRestored with Ptolemy VIII; later co-regent with Ptolemy IX and X.127 - 107 BC
Cleopatra IIReconciled with Ptolemy VIII; co-ruled with Cleopatra III and Ptolemy until 116.124 - 116 BC
Ptolemy IX Soter IIDied 80 BC116 - 110 BC
Cleopatra IVShortly married to Ptolemy IX, but was pushed out by Cleopatra III116 - 115 BC
Ptolemy X Alexander IDied 88 BC110 - 109 BC
Ptolemy IX Soter IIRestored109 - 107 BC
Ptolemy X Alexander IRestored107 - 88 BC
Ptolemy IX Soter IIRestored again88 - 81 BC
Berenice IIIForced to marry Ptolemy XI; murdered on his orders 19 days later81 - 80 BC
Ptolemy XI Alexander IIYoung son of Ptolemy X Alexander; installed by Sulla; ruled for 80 days before being lynched by citizens for killing Berenice III80 BC
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes)Son of Ptolemy IX; died 51 BC80 - 58 BC
Cleopatra V TryphaenaWife of Ptolemy XII, mother of Berenice IV ? - 57 BC
Cleopatra VIDaughter of Ptolemy XII ? - 58 BC
Berenice IVDaughter of Ptolemy XII; forced to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes, but had him strangled58 - 55 BC
Ptolemy XII Neos DionysosRestored; reigned briefly with his daughter Cleopatra VII before his death55 - 51 BC
Cleopatra VIIJointly with her father Ptolemy XII, her brother Ptolemy XIII, her brother-husband Ptolemy XIV, and her son Ptolemy XV; also known simply as Cleopatra, subject of the movies of that name and considered the last ruler of Ancient Egypt.51 - 30 BC
Ptolemy XIIIBrother of Cleopatra VII51 - 47 BC
Arsinoe IVIn opposition to Cleopatra VII 48 - 47 BC
Ptolemy XIVYounger brother of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII47 - 44 BC
Ptolemy XV CaesarionInfant son of Cleopatra VII; aged 3 when proclaimed co-ruler with Cleopatra44 - 30 BC


Egypt became a province of Rome under Augustus Caesar in 30 BC. Subsequent Roman Emperors were accorded the title of Pharaoh, although exclusively in Egypt.

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